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BRYCHEINIOG


Cyfnodolyn Cymfeithas Brycheiniog
The Journal of the Brecknock Society

Citation and Reference Guidelines

An example text is provided here
Technical articles, such as excavation reports, may use in-line citation in the article as an alternative.

In the End Notes (or, for technical articles, in the text)
Placement Sources are cited in the end notes by the author's surname, the publication date of the work cited, and a page number if relevant. If the reference is part of an end note with additional text, place the reference at the appropriate point in the text; normally just before punctuation. If the author’s name appears in the text, it is not necessary to repeat it, but the date should follow immediately:
Jones and Jones (2013) did useful work on this subject.
Evans’ (2012) research is valuable.
If the reference is in parentheses, use square brackets for additional parentheses:
(see, e.g., Evans [2012: 49] on this important subject).
Within the same parentheses Separate the references with semicolons. The order of the references is flexible, so this can be alphabetical, chronological, or in order of importance, depending on the preference of the author of the article. If citing more than one work by an author, do not repeat the name:
(Jenkins 2010, 2012; Evans 2012)
(Jenkins 2010, 2012, 84; Evans 2012: 54–60)
(Jenkins 2012a, 2012b, 82; Evans 2012: 9)
Repeat mentions in the same paragraph If the reference is part of an end note with additional text, place the parenthetical citation after the last reference in the paragraph or at the end of the paragraph before the final full stop. If the reference is to a different page, however, put the full citation at the first reference and then include only the page number at the next mention:
Text (Jenkins 2012: 54) … more text … “quoted text” (68).
With a quotation Citation of the source normally follows a quotation, but may be placed before the quotation to allow the date to appear with the author’s name:
As Jenkins (2012: 67) points out, “quoted text.” As Jenkins points out, “quoted text” (2012: 67).
After a displayed quotation, the source appears in parentheses after the final punctuation: end of displayed quotation. (Jenkins 2012: 67)
Page number or other locator (Jenkins 2012: 6–10)
(Jones 2012: vol. 2)
One author Jenkins (2012) or (Jenkins 2012)
Two authors Jenkins and Jones (2012) or (Jenkins and Jones 2012)
Three authors Jenkins, Jones, and Evans (2012) or (Jenkins, Jones, and Evans 2012)
Four or more authors Jenkins et al. (2012)
(Jenkins et al. 2012)
If the reference list contains two publications in the same year that would both shorten to the same form (e.g. Jenkins et al. 2012), cite the surnames of the first author and as many others as necessary to distinguish the two references, followed by comma and et al. (NB: you cannot use et al. unless it stands for two authors or more.). If this would result in more than three names having to be used, cite the first author plus a short title:
(Jenkins et al., “Short Title,” 2012)
(Jenkins et al., “Abbreviated Title,” 2012)
Authors with same surname G. Jenkins 2012 and F. Jenkins 2008
No author Cite first few words of title (in quotation marks or italics), plus the year.
Groups of authors that would shorten to the same form Cite the surnames of the first author and as many others as necessary to distinguish the two references, followed by comma and et al.
Organisation as author The organisation can be listed under its abbreviation so that the text citation is shorter. If this is the case, alphabetise the reference under the abbreviation rather than the full In the text:
(CBA 2012)
In the reference list:
CBI (Council for British Archaeology) 2012. Title …
Author with two works in the same year Put a, b, c after the year
(Gibbs 2011a, 2011b)
Secondary source When it is not possible to see an original document, cite the source of your information on it; do not cite the original assuming that the secondary source is correct.
Jenkins's diary (as quoted in Evans 2012)
Primary source Primary sources references are given only in the end notes, not in the reference list.
Personal communication References to personal communications are cited only in the end notes:
A. Colleague (personal communication, July 20, 2015)
Unknown date (Author, n.d.)
(Author, forthcoming)
Two dates List the original date first, in square brackets:
Author ([1890] 2003)
Multivolume works: (Author 1951–71)
Reference List
Order Alphabetically by last name of author. If no author or editor, order by title.
Names with particles (e.g. de, von, van den) should be alphabetised by the individual’s personal preference if known, or traditional usage.
A single-author entry precedes a multi-author entry that begins with the same name. Successive entries by two or more authors when only the first author is the same are alphabetised by co-authors’ last names. If references have the same author(s), editor(s), etc., arrange by year of publication, with undated works at the end.
If the reference list contains two or more items by the same author in the same year, add a, b, etc. and list them alphabetically by title of the work:
Matthews, M. L. 2012a. Book Title.
Matthews, Mary L. 2012b. Title of Book.
Form of author name Surname and initial(s) in bold.
Punctuation Headline-style capitalisation is used. In headline style, the first and last words of title and subtitle and all other major words (nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs) are capitalised. For non-English titles, use original or sentence-style capitalisation.
Book
One author Jenkins, J. J. 2012. Book Title: The Subtitle. Cardiff: Cardiff University Press.
Two authors Jenkins, J. J. and Jones, J. B. 2012. Book Title: The Subtitle. Cardiff: Cardiff University Press.
Three authors Jenkins, J., Jones, J. and Matthews, M. 2012. Book Title: The Subtitle. Cardiff: Cardiff University Press.
Four to ten authors Give all authors' names.
More than ten authors List the first seven authors followed by et al.
Organisation as author University of Chicago Press. 2012. The Chicago Manual of Style. 16th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
No author Begin the References entry with the title, and ignore “the”, “a” or “an” for the purposes of alphabetical order.
Book title In all cases, the book title should be in italic.
Chapter
Edited Jenkins, J. (ed.) 2012. Art Style Manuals. Cardiff: Cardiff University Press.
Jenkins, J. and Jones, J. (eds). 2012. Art Style Manuals. Cardiff: Cardiff University Press.
Edition University of Chicago Press. 2012. The Chicago Manual of Style. 16th edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Multivolume work Matthews, M. L. 2012. Collected Correspondence. Vol. 2 of The Collected Correspondence of M. L. Matthews. Cardiff: Cardiff University Press, 2000–.
Evans, L. 2009–12. Collected Works. 2 volumes. Cardiff: Cardiff University Press.
Translated Jenkins, J. 2012. Art Style Manuals. Translated and edited by J. Jones. Cardiff: Cardiff University Press.
Not in English If an English translation of the title is needed, it follows this style:
Piaget, J., and Inhelder, B. 1951. La genèse de l’idée de hasard chez l’enfant [The Origin of the Idea of Chance in the Child]. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
Online If you used an online version, cite the online version, include the URL:
Jenkins, J. 2012. Book Title: The Subtitle. Cardiff: Cardiff University Press. http://xxxxxxxxx/.
Place of publication Where two cities are given, include the first one only. If the city could be confused with another, add the abbreviation of the state, province, or country:
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
When the publisher’s name includes the state name, the abbreviation is not needed:
Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press
Publisher Omit initial “the”, and “Inc.”, “Ltd”, “Co.”, “Publishing Co.”, etc.
Book title In all cases, the book title should be in italic.
Journal
One author Jenkins, J. 2012. Article Title: The Subtitle. Journal Title in Full 10 (1): 30–40. http://xxxxxxxxx/.
Two authors Jenkins, J. J., and Evans, L. M. 2012. Article Title: The Subtitle. Journal Title in Full 10 (1): 200–210. http://xxxxxxxxx/.
Three authors Jenkins, J. J., Jones, J. P. and Matthews, M. G. 2012. Article Title: The Subtitle. Journal Title in Full 10 (1): 33–39. http://xxxxxxxxx/.
Four to ten authors Give all authors’ names.
More than ten authors List the first seven authors followed by et al.
Translated Evans, L. 2012. Article Title in English. [In French.] Journal Title in Full 10 (3): 10–29. http://xxxxxxxxx/.
Not in English Capitalise sentence-style, but according to the conventions of the relevant language.
Issue numbers When volume and issue number alone are used, the issue number is within parentheses. If only an issue number is used, it is not within parentheses.
Online journals If you used an online version, cite the online version, include a URL.
Journal title In all cases, the journal title should be in italic.
Conference
Conference Proceedings Individual contributions to conference proceedings are treated like chapters in multi-author books. If published in a journal, treat as an article.
Paper Jenkins, J. 2012. Title of Paper. Paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Antiquaries. Oxford. November 21–24.
Thesis
Thesis Jenkins, J. 2010. Title of Thesis. Unpublished PhD thesis. University of Bangor.
Unpublished work
Book or journal article Use Forthcoming instead of the date. If an article is not yet accepted, treat as a thesis.
Internet
In article text only: (“As of July 19, 2015, the BBC listed on its website . . .”).
Document Davis, J. 2014. Minerals in Wales. The Guardian. October 28. http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/oct/28/john-davis-letter
If citing an undated online document, give an access date and use the year of access as year of publication:
Wales National Library. 2012. Library Strategy. Wales National Library. Accessed June 3 2015. http://www.wnl.ac/library/strategy.html
Newspaper or magazine
Newspaper or magazine Newspapers and magazines are cited in the text, and no entry is needed in the References:
“quotation from newspaper” (Sunday Times, April 8, 2012)
... as noted in a Guardian article on February 27, 2012 ...
If a reference is needed or preferred, use this style:
Author. 2012. Article Title. Sunday Times. April 8.
http://xxxxxxxxxxxxx.
(If no author is identified, begin the citation with the article title.)
Report
Report Treat pamphlets, reports, brochures and freestanding publications such as exhibition catalogues as books. Give sufficient information to identify the document
Personal Communication
Personal Communication Letter, telephone conversation, or email Place references to personal communications such as letters and conversations within the article or end notes text, not as formal end references: … as mentioned in a letter to me from John Noakes, March 4, 2003 …